History of the 4444 Second Ave Building
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- 1 History of the Area
- 2 History of the Green Garage building
- 3 Detroit City Directories from 1881-1919
- 4 Detroit City Directory 1921-1922
- 4.1 Detroit City Directory 1922-1923
- 4.2 Detroit City Directory 1924-1925
- 4.3 Detroit City Directory 1927-1928
- 4.4 Detroit City Directory 1929-1932
- 4.5 Detroit City Directory 1932-1933
- 4.6 Detroit City Directory 1934-1937
- 4.7 Detroit City Directory 1938
- 4.8 Detroit City Directory 1939
- 4.9 Detroit City Directory 1940
- 4.10 Detroit City Directory 1941
- 4.11 1941-1942
- 4.12 1944
- 4.13 1952
- 4.14 Detroit City Directory 1956
- 4.15 Detroit City Directory 1958
- 4.16 Detroit City Directory 1964 and 1965
- 4.17 1968
- 4.18 1967
- 4.19 1968
- 4.20 1976
- 4.21 1990
- 4.22 1996
- 4.23 1996 or 1997
- 4.24 2007
- 4.25 Fall 2009
- 5 More on the Ames Corp
- 6 Additional Material
- 7 Historic Pictures
- 8 Current Research
- 8.1 There were houses on the lots that the historic section of the GG sits on. Who owned the houses? Did they have kids? What did they do? Do their ancestors still live in the area? This is especially important since we've found relics of these families.
- 8.2 What was Cass Farms? I think it was the Lewis Cass farm. We're in Block 99...what does that mean?
- 8.3 What is the history of Second Avenue? Did it have an "identity" in the city?
- 9 Research into companies or ideas associated with the building's history
- 10 From meeting with Bill McElhone of the Birmingham Historical Museum and Park
- 11 From meeting with Marsha, Marilyn, Bob and Frank April 8, 2010
- 12 Links
- 13 Resources
History of the Area
The Green Garage is located at 4444 Second, which is considered part of the Warren-Prentis Historic District of Detroit. This district is part of a greater area known as Cass Farms which refers to a large parcel of land once owned by Lewis Cass, former governor of the State of Michigan. His property comprised 500 acres and was bounded by present day Cass Avenue and 3rd Street, and stretched from the Detroit River to 3 miles inland (approximately up to Grand Boulevard). Going back to the early days of French dominion, the land that would one day be known as Cass Farms was at that time divided into 3 separate parcels and was deeded by the French king as follows:
- Jacques Godet, April 1750
- Jean Baptiste des Butes dit St. Martin, in two deeds, April 1750 and March 1759
- Francois Barrios, April 1752
At some time before the American Revolution, the parcels came under the ownership of Charles Courtois, Francois Berthelet and Charles Beaubien.
In 1783, all three parcels were purchased by the merchant firm of Macomb-Edgar-Macomb (William and Alexander Macomb, and William Edgar). At some point all of the property became the estate of William Macomb and was then passed to his three sons, David, William and John. It was from the Macomb family that Lewis Cass purchased the entirety of the property in 1816 for $12,000.
From 1830 to 1836, the population of Detroit grew so rapidly (from 2,222 in 1830 to 6,927 in 1836), that the front portion of Cass Farms from Larned Street to the River was needed for wharves, warehouses and hotels to facilitate trade. So in 1835, the Cass Farms Company was formed and purchased the front section from Lewis Cass for $100,000.
As Detroit became a leading manufacturing center in the last 2 decades of the nineteenth century, and the population doubled in size, many professionals and managers were looking for housing that would reflect their increased status. This area was considered a prime location as it was close enough for those who still had to commute by horse and carriage. Leading architects were hired to develop these substantial homes. By the 1920's, this area, particularly along Cass Corridor, was also was home to many of the first automobile dealerships, and this was the first use of the Green Garage.
The area began to decline during the Great Depression, when most families found that they could not maintain such vast residences. Many of these homes were rented to multiple families, who often did not keep them up. During the 1950's and 1960's when the population of the area decreased sharply, the area went into further decline, and in the 1970's and 1980's, the Cass Corridor was known as an area of numerous illegal activities.
The area has seen a resurgence since the 1990's with increased student populations, Cultural Center and medical center activity. The Warren-Prentis district contains 108 historic structures, and is notable because the majority of the pre-1930's building stock remains.
History of the Green Garage building
The building was constructed in 1920, during a boom time in Detroit. We examined a number of volumes of Polk's Detroit City Directory (if you'd like to see a sample of one of these directories, Google has digitized an 1855 Detroit directory). We found out that the building has had many owners -- here's what we've learned so far:
Detroit City Directories from 1881-1919
During this period, the property presently occupied by the Green Garage contained three houses with the addresses of 800, 804 and 808 Second Avenue. This was changed to the 4442-50 address around 1920 when the houses were torn down and the new building was constructed. This is who lived in these houses:
800 Second Avenue:
- 1881 - Vacant
- The Mulliken Family - 1882-1896
Living at this address beginning in 1882 were John B. Mulliken, his wife, Emma A., and sons Harry B. and George F. John B. was a general manager at the Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroad, and the Chicago & West Michigan Railway, office located at 28 Newberry Building. In 1891, John B. is listed as a commissioner at the Board of Public Works. John B. died on Nov. 23, 1892 at the age of 55. Emma Mulliken remained in the house with son, Harry, a student, until sometime between 1895 and 1896 when she moved to a new address at 91 Farnsworth.
- The Ross Family - 1897-1912
- Susanna T. (Anna) Ross, widow of Edward H. Ross, with son, John L., move into 800 Second Ave. around 1897. US Census records indicate that Susanna was born in Ireland in 1838 and immigrated to the US in 1848.
- From 1904-1905, also listed at this address is the Eugene Chemical Company.
- 1912 - Address is listed under John L. Ross. He worked at Ross & Young Machine Co, tel. no. Grand 1115.
- The Doyle Family - 1913-1916
- The John D. Doyle family move into 800 Second Ave. in 1913. Family includes wife, Suzanna (Susie), son, Thomas Allen, and boarder, Florence R. Cook.
- Thomas worked as a chauffeur for the People's State Bank.
- Florence Cook was a dressmaker.
- According to US Census records, the Doyle family was originally from New York.
- Samuel Jacobs - 1917-1918
- Worked as a machinist.
- Fred Reissman - 1919
- Worked as a foreman at the Michigan Shade Cleaning Co.
804 Second Avenue:
808 Second Avenue:
Detroit City Directory 1921-1922
- 4442-50 Second Blvd.....DeFord Motor Truck Co
- Jas M DeFord (pres)
- E Foster Moreton (vice pres)
- Jas L Weir (sec-tres)
- 4445 Second Blvd.....Schad, Phillip G. and Hoffenbacher, Fannie
Detroit City Directory 1922-1923
- 4442-50 Second Blvd.....Ames-built Sales Corp (bodies for Model T cars)
- Chas E Walker (pres)
- Geo A Hans (vice pres)
- L R Welcome (vice pres)
- H G Beebe (Jackson, MI) (vice pres)
- Chas G Nielsen (sec and tres - auto bodies)
- 4445 Second Blvd.....Schad, Phillip G.
Detroit City Directory 1924-1925
Detroit City Directory 1927-1928
- Wayne Automotive Supply Co
Detroit City Directory 1929-1932
- Harrison Radiator Corp.
- Geo VanAlstyne (br manager)
Detroit City Directory 1932-1933
Detroit City Directory 1934-1937
- Harr Oldsmobile Co
- David P Harr (pres)
- Mrs. Eliza C Harr (vice pres)
- Frank P Kottenstette (sec-tres autos)
Detroit City Directory 1938
Detroit City Directory 1939
- Hartman Motor Sales
- Earl T. Hartman
- Abraham Farris
Detroit City Directory 1940
- ABC Garage
- Morris Cameron
Detroit City Directory 1941
- McCray Refrigerator Co. and Dealers Auto Radio
- Samuel Kanners brought his shoe supply business to the building
- Bob Zukowski begins work at S. Kanners and Co.
- Frank Lucente starts work at Kanners and Patrize shoveling coal after school
Detroit City Directory 1956
- S. Kanners and Co.
- Samuel Kanners, President
Detroit City Directory 1958
- Victor Kanners and Samuel Patrize brought their shoe businesses together into the building. Becomes Kanners and Patrize.
Detroit City Directory 1964 and 1965
- Kanners and Patrize Co.
- Victor Kanners
- Samuel Patrize
- Annex built
- Detroit riots
- Windows bricked up in building on advice of insurance company
- In 1976, the building was co-owned by 4 people who worked there:
- Bob Patrize (Samuel Patrize's son) (President) (sales)
- Bob Zukowski (Vice President) (ran office)
- Chester Martin (Secretary) (sales)
- Frank Lucente (Treasurer) (ran warehouse)
- Bob Zukowski leaves and the business was sold to Frank Lucente's 2 sons, Frank and Douglas Lucente in 1990. The boys owned the business and the father owned the building.
- Dave Lucente sold out to Doug Lucente in 1996.
1996 or 1997
- Building is sold to John Linardos of Motor City Brewing Works.
- John Linardos sells the building to Tom and Peggy Brennan.
- Construction on Green Garage starts.
More on the Ames Corp
Ames-built Sales Corp sold replacement bodies for Model T cars from 1916, when the carriage business was forced out by the automobile business, until 1926, when they were no longer needed.
- File:Stoker Poker and a Peg.pdf - Bob Zukowski's retirement speech in 1991 - great story!
- A Green History at the Green Garage - Remembrances from Bob Zukowski
- Tongue in Cheek - by Bob Zukowski
There were houses on the lots that the historic section of the GG sits on. Who owned the houses? Did they have kids? What did they do? Do their ancestors still live in the area? This is especially important since we've found relics of these families.
What was Cass Farms? I think it was the Lewis Cass farm. We're in Block 99...what does that mean?
Progression of property ownership on Cass Farms Property Source: Cass Farm Property Submission from Wikipedia
- The Cass Farm area is defined as occupying the space between Woodward Avenue on the east, the Lodge Freeway on the west, Warren Avenue on the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard on the south.
- After 1805 fire in Detroit, Congress authorized platting of a new village at Detroit. The land consisted of 3 ribbon farms (the Cass Farm, the Jones/Crane Farm, and the Forsyth Farm), as well as a section of the Park Lots between Woodward and Cass.
- Development of the area didn't start until the 1860's.
- Cass purchased the ribbon farm between what is now Cass Ave. and Third in 1816 from the Macomb family for $12,000. He began developing the areas closest to the river first, and by the time he died in 1866 he had developed just north of MLK Blvd. His children continued to develop the property after his death.
- The Cass Farms area remainder relatively rural until 1870, when the population of Detroit reached 80,000. A streetcar line was established in the 1860's to allow residents of the Cass Farm area to get to downtown.
- The West Canfield Historic District was one of the first subdivisions platted in the area, in 1871. 1880-1895 brought a boom in the construction of elegant single-family and duplex homes in the Cass Farm area. The lots on Woodward were the most expensive and featured the most opulent homes; the lots immediately off the main street were soon filled with the homes of Detroit's upper class.
- In the late 1890's the demand for more apartment housing led to more small apartment buildings in the area.
- In the early 1900's the rise of the automobile and congestion along Woodward led to development of more commercial buildings, (showrooms, service stations, and part supply businesses) and apartment housing for auto workers.
- The Great Depression began the long decline of the Cass Farms area. Many auto workers were out of work and many buildings went through foreclosure. Economic gains from WWII did not penetrate the area.
- By the 1950's there was widespread demolition of buildings in the Cass Farms area.
A little more on Lewis Cass Source: Detroit's street names honor early leaders - Detroit News
"Like a number of other streets located west of Woodward, Cass was once a farm boundary line. The Lewis Cass farm, purchased from the Macomb family (the Macomb family, one of Detroit's earliest settlers. They owned large parcels of land and at one time owned Hog Island, later named Belle Isle), was one of the largest Detroit farms, the width of Cass to Third Street and north from the Detroit River to Grand Boulevard in length. The 500 acres bought for $12,000 and the subsequent growth of Detroit made Cass a very wealthy man.
Cass came to Detroit as a schoolmaster in the early 1800s and became a lawyer, a colonel in the militia, and a general in the U.S. Army.
In 1813 President James Madison appointed Cass the second governor of the Michigan territory, a post he held for 18 years. He became a U.S. Senator from Michigan in 1845. In 1848 he ran for president as a Democrat, but lost to Whig Zachary Taylor. He served in the Senate until 1857 and was President James Buchanan's Secretary of State. Cass Street was located immediately west of Fort Shelby, and after Cass the streets were named numerically First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, signifying their order west from the fort."
What is the history of Second Avenue? Did it have an "identity" in the city?
Research into companies or ideas associated with the building's history
From meeting with Bill McElhone of the Birmingham Historical Museum and Park
- Society of American Archivists
- Walter Reuther Archives at WSU
- Mike Smith
- Cathy Schmelling
- might have students who need work
- Manning Bros Collection
- Burton Historical Collection at MSU
- State archives
- Corporation records
- National Automotive Heritage Collection (part of Det Pub Lib)
- Detroit Auto Dealers Archives
- Preservation Wayne
- Robin Boyle (WSU Planning Department)
- Allegra - for printing photos
- Marguerite (248-390-5531)
From meeting with Marsha, Marilyn, Bob and Frank April 8, 2010
Property originally bought from "3 friendly Indians" (On the Abstract)
- Ames bought chassis from Ford & cabs from a furniture company in Kentucky and assembled them at this building
- Before 1941 building was a service garage
History of Kanners
- Sam Kanners born in 1896 came from Romania
- Originally was a finder (called on businesses and businesses asked them to "find" the supplies they needed) and worked out of his home at Forest and Beaubian
- 1925 Wendt, Steffen and Kanners opened at 33 Elliott (Elliott and Woodward)
- Wendt died during World War II
- Steffen was in Buffalo and only furnished money
- 1941-2 S. Kanners Co. moved to 4444 Second
- Note: current Midtown area was birthplace to shoe business. Businesses started as shoe repair shops and also sold shoes.
- "The Chief" sponsored people from the old country when they a=came to America
- Bob started with the company in Sept. 1944 He was 14 and made 45 cents an hour.
- Ida Kanners was head of finance
- Frank started with the company in 1952
- in the 1950's Victor Kanners took over the company
- 1940's Bob had a '36 Plymouth that could only turn left. In 1950's Sam gave Bob an envelope with $1000 and told him to buy a new car
- 1976 Victor Kanners sold business to Bob & Frank, Chester and Bob Patrize
- 1996 Frank sold the building to John Linardos
- Misc. Notes:
- Before annex was built, it was a dirt lot where the staff would park their cars. The brick wall has parking places marked with staff member initials.
- Cinch products were their brand
- Green Garage Flickr Document Archive Account
- Historic Materials Archive Google Doc spreadsheet detailing historic documents and materials found in the building (item description, date of item, link to digital photo)
- Polk's Detroit City Directories, including 1855 Detroit directory
- Sanborn Maps
- Frank Lucente, Marilyn Beckham, Bob Zukowski
- Bill McElhone of the Birmingham Historical Museum and Park
- Wikipedia: Cass Farm Property Submission
- Detroit's street names honor early leaders - Detroit News
- State U./Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs. Mike Smith or Cathy Schmelling.